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Alamofire:Swift的HTTP 网络库

安装

  • 手动安装
    • 下载Alamofire
    • Alamofire.xcodeproj拖进到项目中

    • “Embedded Binaries中添加

    • command + B 编译后就可以使用

关于 https://httpbin.org/ 网站

https://httpbin.org/ 网站可用来做http的各种请求测试使用,不过遗憾的是没有POST等提交类型请求的测试

基本使用

一个简单的请求:

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import Alamofire

Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get")

http中有请求(Request)响应(Response)两个重要概念。大部分http框架,都会使用requestresponse作为方法名。
看看Alamofire的request方法的详细参数:

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public func request(
_ url: URLConvertible,
method: HTTPMethod = .get,
parameters: Parameters? = nil,
encoding: ParameterEncoding = URLEncoding.default,
headers: HTTPHeaders? = nil)
-> DataRequest
{

url,method,parameters,encoding,headers五个参数,与http是相互对应的。其中只有url是必须的,其它都有默认值。

请求后的响应处理

向http发送请求后,就需对响应结果进行处理。 Alamofire采用链式调用的方式处理响应,这种链式调用的方式最初应该是起源jQuery
响应处理的一般形式如下,response就是响应结果。

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Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get").responseJSON { response in

}

Alamofire 提供了五种不同的响应处理:

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// Response Handler - Unserialized Response
func response(
queue: DispatchQueue?,
completionHandler: @escaping (DefaultDataResponse) -> Void)
-> Self

// Response Data Handler - Serialized into Data
func responseData(
queue: DispatchQueue?,
completionHandler: @escaping (DataResponse<Data>) -> Void)
-> Self

// Response String Handler - Serialized into String
func responseString(
queue: DispatchQueue?,
encoding: String.Encoding?,
completionHandler: @escaping (DataResponse<String>) -> Void)
-> Self

// Response JSON Handler - Serialized into Any
func responseJSON(
queue: DispatchQueue?,
completionHandler: @escaping (DataResponse<Any>) -> Void)
-> Self

// Response PropertyList (plist) Handler - Serialized into Any
func responsePropertyList(
queue: DispatchQueue?,
completionHandler: @escaping (DataResponse<Any>) -> Void))
-> Self

五种方法的参数不同,但最后一参数都是一个回调的闭包,都可以写成尾随闭包形式。除了response方法的回调参数是DefaultDataResponse,其它都是DataResponse:

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public struct DataResponse<Value> {
/// The URL request sent to the server.
public let request: URLRequest?

/// The server's response to the URL request.
public let response: HTTPURLResponse?

/// The data returned by the server.
public let data: Data?

/// The result of response serialization.
public let result: Result<Value>

/// The timeline of the complete lifecycle of the request.
public let timeline: Timeline

/// Returns the associated value of the result if it is a success, `nil` otherwise.
public var value: Value? { return result.value }

/// Returns the associated error value if the result if it is a failure, `nil` otherwise.
public var error: Error? { return result.error }

var _metrics: AnyObject?

DataResponseDefaultDataResponse最大的不同就是多了两个属性resultvaluevalue值就是格式化的不同类型。

响应处理的一些例子

  • response

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    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get").response { response in
    print("Request: \(response.request)")
    print("Response: \(response.response)")
    print("Error: \(response.error)")

    if let data = response.data, let utf8Text = String(data: data, encoding: .utf8) {
    print("Data: \(utf8Text)")
    }
    }

    response方法的响应结果responseDefaultDataResponse,没有进行过格式化处理。

  • responseData

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    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get").responseData { response in
    debugPrint("All Response Info: \(response)")

    if let data = response.result.value, let utf8Text = String(data: data, encoding: .utf8) {
    print("Data: \(utf8Text)")
    }
    }

    responseData方法对响应结果进行了处理,response.result.value就是我们属性的Data类型。

  • 链式调用
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    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get")
    .responseString { response in
    print("Response String: \(response.result.value)")
    }
    .responseJSON { response in
    print("Response JSON: \(response.result.value)")
    }

响应验证

http响应结果中的不同状态码(100..<600)表示不同结果。

  • 手动验证
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     Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get")
    .validate(statusCode: 200..<300)
    .validate(contentType: ["application/json"])
    .responseData { response in
    switch response.result {
    case .success:
    print("Validation Successful")
    case .failure(let error):
    print(error)
    }
    }
  • 自动验证
    状态码在200..<300的为正确,其它为错误。
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    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get").validate().responseJSON { response in
    switch response.result {
    case .success:
    print("Validation Successful")
    case .failure(let error):
    print(error)
    }
    }

HTTP不同请求方式

request方法的method参数表示不同的方法。

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Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get") // method defaults to `.get`

Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post)
Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/put", method: .put)
Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/delete", method: .delete)

请求参数编码

GET的参数按照固定格式写到URL中,其他类型则按照不同格式写到请求body中。

  • GET参数编码

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    let parameters: Parameters = ["foo": "bar"]

    // All three of these calls are equivalent
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get", parameters: parameters) // encoding defaults to `URLEncoding.default`
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get", parameters: parameters, encoding: URLEncoding.default)
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get", parameters: parameters, encoding: URLEncoding(destination: .methodDependent))

    // https://httpbin.org/get?foo=bar
  • POST参数编码

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    let parameters: Parameters = [
    "foo": "bar",
    "baz": ["a", 1],
    "qux": [
    "x": 1,
    "y": 2,
    "z": 3
    ]
    ]

    // All three of these calls are equivalent
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post, parameters: parameters)
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post, parameters: parameters, encoding: URLEncoding.default)
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post, parameters: parameters, encoding: URLEncoding.httpBody)

    // HTTP body: foo=bar&baz[]=a&baz[]=1&qux[x]=1&qux[y]=2&qux[z]=3
  • JSON编码

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    let parameters: Parameters = [
    "foo": [1,2,3],
    "bar": [
    "baz": "qux"
    ]
    ]

    // Both calls are equivalent
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post, parameters: parameters, encoding: JSONEncoding.default)
    Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/post", method: .post, parameters: parameters, encoding: JSONEncoding(options: []))

    // HTTP body: {"foo": [1, 2, 3], "bar": {"baz": "qux"}}

添加请求HTTP头部

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let headers: HTTPHeaders = [
"Authorization": "Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==",
"Accept": "application/json"
]

Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/headers", headers: headers).responseJSON { response in
debugPrint(response)
}

HTTP认证

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let user = "user"
let password = "password"

Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/basic-auth/\(user)/\(password)")
.authenticate(user: user, password: password)
.responseJSON { response in
debugPrint(response)
}

下载文件

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Alamofire.download("https://httpbin.org/image/png").responseData { response in
if let data = response.result.value {
let image = UIImage(data: data)
}
}

另外可以下文件保存在本地:

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let destination: DownloadRequest.DownloadFileDestination = { _, _ in
let documentsURL = FileManager.default.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in: .userDomainMask)[0]
let fileURL = documentsURL.appendingPathComponent("pig.png")

return (fileURL, [.removePreviousFile, .createIntermediateDirectories])
}

Alamofire.download("https://httpbin.org/image/png", to: destination).response { response in
print(response)

if response.error == nil, let imagePath = response.destinationURL?.path {
let image = UIImage(contentsOfFile: imagePath)
self.imageView.image = image
self.tableView.reloadData()
}
}

上传

  • 上传 Data

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    let imageData = UIImagePNGRepresentation(image!)!

    Alamofire.upload(imageData, to: "https://httpbin.org/post").responseJSON { response in
    debugPrint(response)
    }
  • 上传文件

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    let fileURL = Bundle.main.url(forResource: "video", withExtension: "mov")

    Alamofire.upload(fileURL!, to: "https://httpbin.org/post").responseJSON { response in
    debugPrint(response)
    }
  • 上传Multipart Form Data(表单提交)

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    Alamofire.upload(
    multipartFormData: { multipartFormData in
    multipartFormData.append(unicornImageURL, withName: "unicorn")
    multipartFormData.append(rainbowImageURL, withName: "rainbow")
    },
    to: "https://httpbin.org/post",
    encodingCompletion: { encodingResult in
    switch encodingResult {
    case .success(let upload, _, _):
    upload.responseJSON { response in
    debugPrint(response)
    }
    case .failure(let encodingError):
    print(encodingError)
    }
    }
    )

请求中花费的各种时间

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Alamofire.request("https://httpbin.org/get").responseJSON { response in
print(response.timeline)
}

结果:

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Timeline: { "Latency": 1.527 secs, "Request Duration": 1.528 secs, "Serialization Duration": 0.001 secs, "Total Duration": 1.529 secs }

坚持原创技术分享,您的支持将鼓励我继续创作!
  • 本文标题: Alamofire:Swift的HTTP 网络库
  • 本文作者: AndyRon
  • 发布时间: 2017年08月16日 - 00:00
  • 最后更新: 2018年09月20日 - 02:48
  • 本文链接: http://andyron.com/2017/alamofire-introduce.html
  • 版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特别声明外,均采用 CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 许可协议。转载请注明出处!